airship

Дирижабль

airship

DIRIGIBLE "D-1500"

Assembled from separate enlargement Constructive Modules

Public Design Bureau of Aeronautics

Kiev 2008

The main purpose of aerostatic aircraft (ALA) - the airship is the transportation of commercial cargo weighing up to 1.5 tonnes.
A special feature is the ability of the airship cargo transportation on external sling and inside the hull of the airship gondola. In addition, it can serve as patrolling, monitoring and maintenance of trails gas pipelines and power lines. In remote areas.
When working on this design took into account the wishes of commercial structures for the establishment of a small mobile clearing house, by means of which could be directly from the manufacturer to solve business issues. For example, in remote mountain areas of the Carpathians, to negotiate for the supply of agricultural products on the flat areas. Similar problems have been formulated businessmen in China, Russia (tundra, Caucasus mountains, etc.)
This work was performed at the stage of technical proposals. Requires an appropriate design and transition to further design stages, ie, preliminary and detailed design.
 

 
SPECIFICATIONS
Shell length 63550 mm
The diameter of the shell 14426 mm
The height of the airship 22950 mm
19927 mm width airship
Envelope volume 6902 cubic meters
Take-off weight of 5100 kg
Payload of 1500 kg
The maximum flight speed of 150 km / h
Cruising speed of 95 km / h
Cruising altitude of 500-1000 m
The maximum altitude of 2000 m
Flight range of 1,500 km
Powerplant porshn.dizelny
mot. N = 4 X 110 kW
 
General view of the ALA
Purpose:
transportation of passengers and cargo
The layout of the airship
Airship "D-1500" is a typical representative of semi-soft airships performed by the classical cigar scheme. The airship has a length of 64 m, cladding diameter of 14 m, the volume of 7000 m3.
Body airship has faired formed by a gas-tight soft shell sectional collected from composite longitudinal panels that form the contours of the meridional shape of the shell, closing the ends of the nose and tail cone-shaped rigid domes.
In nutria shell stowed and secured section of gas compartments designed equidistant from the external contour of the shell
The lower part of the shell is designed in such a way that the bottom along the body in the appropriate place built a special catenary belts which prishpagovyvaetsya kilferma - the main carrier module to the gondola - the cargo bay.
Its most prominent features are: modular design of all major components and assemblies, as well as two bow and two tail module diesel power plants with deviating steering planes for propeller control for changing the thrust vector.
Power circuit design.
Direct triangular in cross-section, the keel farm extends inwardly through the shell at the bottom of the theoretical contour of the shell portion and is fastened thereto by a catenary transition zone perimeter. Kiel farm airship is a rigid truss-beam structure and has a transverse force elements 25 frames-rigid truss.
Cross-sectional dimensions of the frame keel-farm (2.2 mx 1.9 m in the middle part) allow you to conveniently place within it aggregates the respective systems, ballast tank and fuel, as well as the necessary piping for fuel and ballast systems, electrical and communication equipment airship control systems and power plants airship. Arranged passages to the power plant, office space, etc.
Frame spacing of 1.0 m.
The dimensions of the transverse cross section of the main beam and stringer 80 mm x 100 mm in the middle of the keel-farm. Sectional shape - triangular, as the most technologically advanced. The wall beams are made by stamping from a thin steel sheet with a thickness of 0.5-1.0 mm and are joined by spot welding.
At the ends of the beams are welded fixing-hinge joints.
Diagonally cells formed stringer beams and frames, as well as along the diagonals of cells farms frames laid rope braces and struts, providing design keel-farm stiffness in bending and torsion.
At the bottom of the keel-farm sites in frames mounted device linkage airship gondola. It is the cockpit and passenger-cargo bay of the airship. Depending on the purpose of the airship and customer requirements are various layout solutions gondola, which can be modified and mounted on the keel-farm provided by nodes, which allows production of airships of various modifications.
The airship gondola has a similar to the keel-farm construction and clad the outside of the sheets of fiberglass thickness of 1.0 - 1.5 mm by means of adhesive-riveted connections. Inner lining, depending on the purpose of the airship, made of decorative and protective materials with appropriate heat and sound insulation.
 
The structural layout of ALA

 
power point
  Placing power plants along the hull of the airship carried out in pairs, ie, two front engine keel farm, two - in the rear part thereof.
Front-engine propulsion driven to rotate the screws that are equipped with special deflected at an angle of 35 ?, steering planes, allowing reject stream of air from the propeller vertical airship that allows you to change the slope of the flight path.
Tail propulsion, equipped with the same deflected rudder planes, allowing reject stream of air from the propeller to the horizontal plane of the airship, which allows to control the airship. This may change the vector thrust propulsion and exercise control of the airship at about zero airspeed and hover, making it easier to maneuver the airship at mooring operations.
Powerplant airship created based on commercially available diesel engine 100 hp The engine is mounted longitudinally within the airship in special compartments keel farm and drive the screws into the exterior of the annular orifice.
By the engine is made from the special supplies tanks located in close proximity to the engine room, and the fuel supply to the expendable tanks carried by special pipelines and pumps the main fuel system of the airship.
Cabin crew.
Airship "D-1500" has a capacity of 7000 m3, and the flight up to 8 hours, available on board systems and equipment justify the use of the following members of the crew commander of the airship; the co-pilot (deputy. airship commander); Flight Engineer (Borttehnik) airship.
Cabin for two crew members located in front of the gondola of the airship and equipped with the necessary navigation equipment, as well as controls the airship. Workplace flight engineer organized in keel-farm airship equipped with electromechanical devices and monitor the performance of propulsion systems and the airship, as well as the relevant authorities.
 
The structural layout kilfermy - Cockpit

 
 
The structural layout kilfermy - Cockpit

Nacelle 14 m long made of a metal frame and paneling from plastic. Floor, ceiling and covered with light frames and high-strength panels made of polymer material. The gondola is attached to the keel through the farm-8-transient power assemblies.
Portholes nacelles and windshield glazing made of transparent plastic provide good all-round visibility.
Passenger and cargo cabin.
In the volume of passenger and cargo compartment in the front part just behind the cockpit is equipped with bio toilet room bathrooms.
Placed on the sides of 2 rows of passenger seats for 10 people, and above them folding bags, containers for luggage and hand luggage.
Since the cabin is not sealed, the heating and ventilation is common to the entire cabin of supply and exhaust devices in flight. Individual air cooling is carried out electric fans on the ground.
When dismantling the seats, organize cargo compartment. It is intended for the carriage of goods requiring the maintenance of positive temperatures during the flight (compared with a container suspended from the outside) to transport bulky cargo and goods, by total weight close to the maximum capacity of the airship, in an environment where not need fast loading and unloading and possible long-term fixed mooring airship. Condition of the goods transported in the cargo can be controlled in flight.
 
The structural layout of the cargo compartment of the gondola ALA

 
Under the cargo cabin stands cargo compartment size 7,7m x 1,5m x 1.9 m.
Structurally cargo compartment consists of one compartment in the rear part of the nacelle. These dimensions allow to transport cargo, packaged on pallets, and a large range of single piece overall.
To ensure that the loading and unloading cargo cabin is equipped with cargo door to the front door-ladder. Opening cargo door 1.3 m is taken as the distance between the side uprights of the frame on the floor in the rear of the nacelle.
Gas shell.
As the carrier gas on the airship used inert gas helium, as well as maneuver gas - Phlegmatized helium, hydrogen (safe helium-hydrogen mixture). They are placed in the gas compartments along the entire length of the airship hull.
As a helium-gas impermeable material for the shell compartments airship used multilayer film, fabric material and the outer surface of the shell to the polyester fabric coated with the outer side to protect it from weathering with a special polyurethane paint layer.
Gas tanks containing a lifting gas, are located in the 3 compartments formed by standing next to the respective cylinders. They are closed airtight construction, repeating the configuration of the internal volume of the envelope of the airship
Design features of the airship gas bags is that they are attached to the ceiling of the shell and filling them with gas emerging from the floatable load forces transmitted to the outer shell of the power airship
Average gas cylinder has two special cloth inside the catenary belt for attaching cables to the internal suspension kilfermy airship envelope.
From the upper nodes frames keel-farm, through special sealing devices, waste cable to the internal catenary belts sewn to the top of the shell. This allows you to, if possible, to equalize the load coming from the keel to the gazovmestilischu farm in the middle and end portions of the shell.
Each gas cylinder is equipped with a gas valve designed for automatic opening and release of the shell carrier gas overpressure above the permissible. Valves and soft, with stiffening rings, exhaust shafts gas cylinders are mounted in mating areas formed by the ends of gas cylinders
Automatic opening of the valve takes place during the ascent when the airship or overheating when the internal pressure exceeds 40-50 mm. waters. Art.
Nose and tail gas cylinders have to accommodate additional cavity shunting gas. The valves of these cavities have compulsory process from the control room and displayed in the exhaust shafts airship envelope.
The cavity between the shell and the gas cylinders are used as air and ballonets nadduvayutsya air going through pipelines from air intakes located at the screw propulsion airship
 
The structural layout of the gas shell ALA

 
Filling system airship carrier gas consists of Conduit fittings of large diameter (100-150 mm) - for making helium gas from the gas tank, small diameter - for making gas helium from a high pressure cylinder, and similar fittings for making hydrogen from gas tanks and special containers .
Fittings from the helium content goes hand along kilfermy airship, in which individual branches to each gas cylinder through the check valve. Each closure valve has a special indicator connected to the pressure gauge, which determine the magnitude of the gas filling each container.
A summary of the value of the gas pressure in each tank is also displayed on the panel of the cockpit.
Empennage.
The plumage of the airship? - Shaped and consists of 3 fixed at an angle 120 ?, stabilizers top of which is mounted vertically on the axis of symmetry of the casing, which provides greater clearance (distance between the bottom surfaces of the stabilizers and the ground).
The shape and area of all three stabilizers and rudders same and corresponds to the minimum hinge point. The frame is made of feathers thin-walled steel cold-formed sections. Stabilizers are designed as free-space trusses having a streamlined shape.
Stabilizers mounted on hinged canopy, aerodynamic rudders and height.
Electrical, radio and navigation equipment
The airship is mainly equipped with an electric, radio and navigation equipment, which is widely used on airplanes.
As sources of power consumers used aircraft alternators voltage 115V, 400Hz (2 on each side of the generator), a motor-driven power plants airship.
Secondary DC power source voltage of 27V, are two static converter ..
As an emergency source voltage of 27V DC used batteries provide power consumers first category required for successful completion of the flight in the event of failure of the main power supply.
Also on board the airship power supply is a voltage of 6 V, 400 Hz for illumination control panels and optical fibers, and a voltage of 220V, 50Hz to power household appliances.
Flight and navigation equipment integrated into the airship complex.
Management of the complex in two reserving each other calculators. Management of Solvers-operated with the indicators established in the workplace pilots.
These panels, indicators are used to manage foreign exchange inertial systems, short-range navigation and radio communication.
The primary flight information is displayed on the multifunction color display (8 X 6 ") mounted on the dashboard of the pilots. The same indicator is used as a remote control weather radar reflecting obstacles along the route.
Coursework inertial navigation system in conjunction with the satellite system and a computer interact with automatic control system and provide precise driving airship on the specified routes.
Airship also installed radio equipment near navigation, radio communication devices, digital video recorders and flight voice information, the defendant "friend or foe", navigation lights, providing autonomous navigation and arrival at a specified place in the event of failure of automatic systems.
Control over the operation of the engine, electrical and mechanical systems of the airship by means of electromechanical devices installed in the cockpit and the technical compartment botrinzhenera.
In poor visibility landing site on the airship includes a remote controlled landing light, and to coordinate the interaction with the ground crew personnel on the airship mooring system installed loud-speaker notification to the ground.
Flight control system.
Airship D-1500 is installed, power remote electric flight control system.
The control system airship D-1500 contains:
control channels sustainer power plants with diesel engines;
channels control the magnitude and direction of the thrust vector propeller of each of the four installed on the airship main engines;
control channels exhaust valves Special sections gas cylinders and all objects ballast intended to change the floatable forces and angles of attack (trim) the airship;
control channels aerodynamic rudders and height;
Airship D-1500 installed:
four marching propulsion diesel engines with controlled power (rpm) and step (draft) of the propeller;
aerodynamic control surfaces - the rudder on the vertical fin and two sections of the elevator on the left and right consoles? - Shaped and consists of 3 fixed at an angle 120 ?, stabilizers top of which is mounted vertically on the axis of symmetry of the casing, which provides greater clearance (distance between the bottom surfaces of the stabilizers and the ground).
The shape and area of all three stabilizers and rudders same and corresponds to the minimum hinge point. The frame is made of feathers thin-walled steel cold-formed sections. Stabilizers are designed as free-space trusses having a streamlined shape.
Stabilizers mounted on hinged canopy, aerodynamic rudders and height.
Electrical, radio and navigation equipment
The airship is mainly equipped with an electric, radio and navigation equipment, which is widely used on airplanes.
As sources of power consumers used aircraft alternators voltage 115V, 400Hz (2 on each side of the generator), a motor-driven power plants airship.
Secondary DC power source voltage of 27V, are two static converter ..
As an emergency source voltage of 27V DC used batteries provide power consumers first category required for successful completion of the flight in the event of failure of the main power supply.
Also on board the airship power supply is a voltage of 6 V, 400 Hz for illumination control panels and optical fibers, and a voltage of 220V, 50Hz to power household appliances.
Flight and navigation equipment integrated into the airship complex.
Management of the complex in two reserving each other calculators. Management of Solvers-operated with the indicators established in the workplace pilots.
These panels, indicators are used to manage foreign exchange inertial systems, short-range navigation and radio communication.
The primary flight information is displayed on the multifunction color display (8 X 6 ") mounted on the dashboard of the pilots. The same indicator is used as a remote control weather radar reflecting obstacles along the route.
Coursework inertial navigation system in conjunction with the satellite system and a computer interact with automatic control system and provide precise driving airship on the specified routes.
Airship also installed radio equipment near navigation, radio communication devices, digital video recorders and flight voice information, the defendant "friend or foe", navigation lights, providing autonomous navigation and arrival at a specified place in the event of failure of automatic systems.
Control over the operation of the engine, electrical and mechanical systems of the airship by means of electromechanical devices installed in the cockpit and the technical compartment botrinzhenera.
In poor visibility landing site on the airship includes a remote controlled landing light, and to coordinate the interaction with the ground crew personnel on the airship mooring system installed loud-speaker notification to the ground.
Flight control system.
Airship D-1500 is installed, power remote electric flight control system.
The control system airship D-1500 contains:
control channels sustainer power plants with diesel engines;
channels control the magnitude and direction of the thrust vector propeller of each of the four installed on the airship main engines;
control channels exhaust valves Special sections gas cylinders and all objects ballast intended to change the floatable forces and angles of attack (trim) the airship;
control channels aerodynamic rudders and height;
Airship D-1500 installed:
four marching propulsion diesel engines with controlled power (rpm) and step (draft) of the propeller;
aerodynamic control surfaces - the rudder on the vertical fin and two sections of the elevator on the left and right consoles? -shaped tail;
gasdynamic rudders, which are controlled by control surfaces and Location: rudders - for propellers stern propulsion power plants, elevators - for propellers bow propulsion power plants.
two valve controlled exhaust gas cylinders (front and back - for simultaneous or separate floatable power control);
controlled drain valves ballast tanks (front and back - for simultaneous or separate control of floatable force).
In some control channels provides redundancy (redundant) power supplies, electrical, hydraulic and mechanical highways actuators.
Ballast system.
The ballast system is designed to control the airship in the vertical plane in the absence or lack of effectiveness of aerodynamic control surfaces, or in parallel with them.
As ballast on the airship is most commonly used water as the cheapest and most convenient to move the material. Its main drawback - in freezing conditions it is necessary to add salt or antifreeze to lower the freezing point.
In general, on board the airship to be 0.6 tons of ballast. All ballast is divided into 2 volumes of 0.2 tons and 0.4 tons of planting consumable.
Tanks have a drain tap large flow.
Transfer pumps installed in the main pipeline ballast system, allow you to move the center of gravity when needed ballast, thereby controlling the pitch angle of the airship. Using the same pump is poured water into the tanks from land-based sources.
Tanks are equipped with by-wire level sensors. All electromagnetic valves with remote control. This allows the remote control at any given time to have the information about the weight and center of gravity of the ballast.
Fuel system.
The main purpose of the fuel system - fuel powered power plants airship.
Total weight of the diesel fuel in an airship - 750 kg.
This fuel is located:
4 in tanks with a capacity of 100 liters each, near the center of volume gazovmestilisch;
2 tanks of 100 liters each, in the vicinity of the nose and tail of the airship;
4 supplies tanks with a capacity of 50 liters near each of four motors.
Tanks with a capacity of 100 liters removed from the center of the volume to be able to change the alignment of the airship by pumping fuel between tanks.
Consumables tanks each of a pair of engines looped to improve reliability.
Fuel system communicates with the part of the ballast tank system, which if necessary can also be filled with fuel to increase the range.
Each tank has a drain, level sensor with 10-minute increments interest readings and alarm the minimum amount of fuel.
All valves and pumps - with wire control. The remote control system of the fuel at any time gives information about the balance of the fuel and enables: refueling transfer between tanks, drain pump supplies to and from the tanks.
 
Accommodation mooring equipment on board ALA

 
The composition of mooring equipment
The composition of mooring equipment includes equipment installed on board the airship and ground mooring equipment.
By mooring equipment installed on board the airship include:
Main mooring rope attached to the bow of the airship;
Aft mooring rope discharged from the stern of the airship;
In addition, the airship is installed: in front of - the front tow rope, aft - rear tow rope. Front and rear tow rope elements are self-contained electric winches to regulate the length of the cable. Both may interact with the cable hawsers airship.
Ground mooring equipment includes:
mooring circle - area diameter 800 - 1000 m, free from foreign objects greater than 2 m in height;
planned without trees and buildings playground diameter of 400 - 500 m, the center of which is in the form of a pyramid tower, the top of which has a unit that rotates around a vertical axis;
ballast truck with a load on casters mounted on coated asphalt circular track steering;
set of ballast weights total weight not exceeding 1.5 ton, packed in bags of 10 - 15 kg and located on a 4-carts with casters;
Balancing - water, sand, shot, etc.
 
Ground mooring equipment
 
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